Occurrence and risk factors for apathy in Parkinson disease: a 4-year prospective longitudinal study.

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Occurrence and risk factors for apathy in Parkinson disease: a 4-year prospective longitudinal study.
Pedersen, Kenn Freddy; Alves, Guido; Aarsland, Dag; Larsen, Jan Petter
2009, 80 (11):1279-82 Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
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dc.contributor.authorPedersen, Kenn Freddyen
dc.contributor.authorAlves, Guidoen
dc.contributor.authorAarsland, Dagen
dc.contributor.authorLarsen, Jan Petteren
dc.identifier.citation2009, 80 (11):1279-82 Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatryen
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND: Apathy is a common but under-recognised behavioural disorder associated with depression and cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). However, the longitudinal course of apathy in PD has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To examine the occurrence of and risk factors for apathy over time in a representative sample of patients with PD. METHODS: A sample of 139 patients was drawn from a population-based prevalence study of PD in Rogaland County, Western Norway. Apathy was measured with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, using a composite score >or=4 to indicate clinically significant apathy. Additional measurements included standardised rating scales for parkinsonism, depression and cognitive impairment. A follow-up evaluation was carried out in 79 patients (78.2% of the survivors) 4 years later. RESULTS: Of the 79 patients included in this study, 29 patients (36.7%) had never had apathy, 11 (13.9%) had persistent apathy, and a further 39 (49.4%) developed apathy during follow-up. At follow-up, patients with apathy were more frequently depressed and demented than never-apathetic patients. Dementia at baseline and a more rapid decline in speech and axial impairment during follow-up were independent risk factors for incident apathy. CONCLUSIONS: Apathy is a persistent behavioural feature in PD with a high incidence and prevalence over time. Progression of motor signs predominantly mediated by non-dopaminergic systems may be a useful preclinical marker for incident apathy in PD.en
dc.subjectVDP::Medisinske Fag: 700::Klinisk medisinske fag: 750::Nevrologi: 752en
dc.subject.meshMemory Disordersen
dc.subject.meshCentral Nervous System Diseasesen
dc.subject.meshParkinson Diseaseen
dc.titleOccurrence and risk factors for apathy in Parkinson disease: a 4-year prospective longitudinal study.en
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.typepeer revieweden
dc.contributor.departmentThe Norwegian Centre for Movement Disorders, Stavanger University Hospital, PO Box 8100, N-4068 Stavanger, Norway. kenfrp@online.noen
dc.identifier.journalJournal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatryen

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