Evaluering av myndighetenes samlede innsats for å forebygge tobakksrelaterte sykdommer i perioden 2003 til 2007

2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10143/84840
Title:
Evaluering av myndighetenes samlede innsats for å forebygge tobakksrelaterte sykdommer i perioden 2003 til 2007
Authors:
Aarø, Leif Edvard; Lund, Karl Erik; Vedøy, Tord Finne; Øverland, Simon
Citation:
SIRUS-rapport 3/2009
Additional Links:
http://www.sirus.no/internett/tobakk/publication/485.html

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorAarø, Leif Edvarden
dc.contributor.authorLund, Karl Eriken
dc.contributor.authorVedøy, Tord Finneen
dc.contributor.authorØverland, Simonen
dc.date.accessioned2009-10-26T12:04:36Z-
dc.date.available2009-10-26T12:04:36Z-
dc.date.issued2009-04-
dc.identifier.citationSIRUS-rapport 3/2009en
dc.identifier.isbn978–82–7171–320–1-
dc.identifier.issn1502–8178-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10143/84840-
dc.description.abstractNORSK SAMMENDRAG: SIRUS har i samarbeid med HEMIL-senteret ved Universitetet i Bergen evaluert den statlige innsatsen mot tobakksskadene fra 2003 til 2007, på oppdrag fra Helsedirektoratet. I denne perioden intensiverte myndighetene sitt arbeid mot tobakkskader. For det første satset man mer på massemediakampanjer med sterkere virkemidler enn tidligere. For det andre ble røykeloven med et totalforbud mot røyking på spisesteder og puber innført fra 1. juni 2004. For det tredje videreutviklet og forbedret man allerede pågående tiltak som Røyketelefonen og programmet for røykfrihet i ungdomsskolen (”FRI”-programmet). Et fjerde tiltak var utvidelsen av helseadvarselen på tobakksemballasjen. Evalueringen av myndighetenes tiltak viser at nedgangen i røyking har blitt kraftigere etter at arbeidet mot tobakkskader ble intensivert. Samlet sett har tiltakene hatt en klar effekt på nordmenns røykevaner. Nedgang i røyking I denne perioden har både røyke- og snusvaner endret seg markant. Nedgangen i røyking i den voksne befolkningen – som hadde begynt før 2002 – har fortsatt, og andelen dagligrøykere var i 2007 nede i 24 prosent blant kvinner og 22 prosent blant menn. Blant elever i ungdomsskolen ble røykingen halvert i løpet av årene 2000-2005 (fra 10 til 5 prosent dagligrøyking alle klassetrinn sett under ett). Økning i snusbruk Samtidig har andelen som bruker snus økt kraftig, særlig blant unge menn. Men man ser også en tendens til at det eksperimenteres mer med snus blant unge kvinner. Ut fra undersøkelsene kan man ikke si sikkert om økningen i bruk av snus har bidratt til nedgangen i røyking, men dette er sannsynlig. Massemediakampanjer Evalueringer av to av massemediakampanjene som ble gjennomført i perioden viser at de ble positivt mottatt. Dette er spesielt interessant med tanke på at kampanjen i 2003 tok i bruk sterkere visuelle effekter enn det som har vært vanlig tidligere her i landet. Grensene for hva som er akseptable virkemidler endrer seg sannsynligvis i takt med at stadig færre røyker og i takt med at grensene for hva som kan presenteres i media generelt er utvidet i forhold til tidligere. Røykeloven Det ble også gjennomført egne undersøkelser for å vurdere innføringen av totalforbud mot røyking på spisesteder og puber. De ansattes holdninger til forbudet endret seg i positiv retning etter at det ble innført. De ansatte opplever at luften er blitt renere, helseplagene er redusert, og de fleste opplever større trivsel på arbeidsplassen. Blant publikum fortsatte tilslutningen til røykfrie serveringssteder å øke etter innføringen – også blant røykere. Hva nå? Spørsmålet nå er hvordan man skal få ned røykingen blant de som fortsatt røyker. De som røyker skiller seg fra ikke-røykerne på ved at de har kortere utdanning og er mer negative til tiltakene mot røyking. Et mulig tiltak kan være skadereduksjon, altså en overgang til langt mindre farlige nikotinprodukter (f.eks. snus) for røykere som ikke kan eller vil slutte med nikotin. Dette er et kontroversielt spørsmål som diskuteres i Karl Erik Lunds rapport Tobakksfritt samfunn eller skadereduksjon? Hvilken målsetting tjener de gjenstående røykerne (SIRUS-rapport 2/2009).en
dc.description.abstractENGLISH SUMMARY: This report was written by researchers from The Norwegian institute for Alcohol and Drug research (SIRUS) and The Research Centre for Health Promotion (HEMIL-senteret), University of Bergen, for the Norwegian Directorate of Health. The main aim was to evaluate the government’s tobacco control program for the period 2003 – 2007. This report summarizes research findings from studies and publications. Part 1 of this report3 starts with an overview of different factors and mechanisms that influence tobacco behavior (smoking and use of snus). Tobacco behavior is modified by a range of factors and processes beyond the control of any tobacco control program. The links between a specific intervention and changes in behavior seen at the population level are often indirect and complex. However, it is still interesting to examine changes which take place in the population as a whole as well as in specific segments and subgroups. These changes can, at least to some extent, shed light on the effects of the combined tobacco control measures. The changes that were observed in the period 2003–2007 can best be understood if we are familiar with previous tobacco control policies in Norway and statistics that shows changes in tobacco behavior in the period before 2003. For this reason the report presents a brief overview of tobacco control measures in the following three periods: 1970 to mid 1990, 1996–2002 and 2003–2007. Towards the end of the first period the government’s tobacco control policies were given less priority. In a 14- year period, from 1980 to 1995, there were no mass media campaigns, and during the same period the decline in smoking prevalence was brought to a standstill. In the 1990s the tobacco control policies were intensified and a new reduction in smoking was observed. In the period 2003–2007 a series of control measures were instigated. Firstly, new mass media campaigns were launched and more dramatic 3 In part 2 of this report we present summaries of the articles and reports which were published as part of the evaluation project. visual measures were adopted. Secondly, from the June 1st 2004, a total ban on smoking in bars and restaurants entered into force. Thirdly, already ongoing tobacco control activities, such as the smoking quit line and the program aimed at creating smoke free schools (the «Free»-program), were improved. Fourthly, health warning labels on cigarette packs were enlarged. In addition, a new control measure, a ban of visual displays of tobacco products in shops, was suggested. Smoking behavior has changed significantly in the evaluation period, both with regards to smoking and snus. The reduction in smoking among adults, which was noticeable already in 2002, continued, and in 2007 the prevalence of daily smoking had fallen to 24 percent among women and 22 percent among men4. Among students in secondary school the prevalence of smoking was halved in the period 2000–2005 (from 10 to 5 percent daily smoking all grades combined). Meanwhile, the prevalence of snus-use has increased considerably, especially among young men. However, an increase is also found among young women. On the basis of the research summarized in this report we cannot conclude firmly that the increase in snus is linked to the reduction in smoking, but we see this as a reasonable assumption. Both adults and adolescents seem to overestimate the dangers associated with snus, compared to smoking. The Norwegian tobacco advertising ban has reduced tobacco advertising to a minimum. However, it has been shown that among adolescents who are exposed to the limited amount of advertising that still exist a higher proportion intend to start smoking. Results summarized in this report also show that branding and specific packet designs contribute to increasing sales. Evaluation of two of the mass media campaigns that were conducted in the evaluation period showed that the campaigns were well received by the public. This is interesting as the campaign from 2003 adopted strong visual measures that had not previously been used in Norway. One reason for this could be an increasing acceptance of strong tobacco control measures as fewer people smoke, but increasing tolerance for strong visual means could also stem from a development where media generally are using more dramatic pictures, language and other strong measures. Tailored surveys were conducted to evaluate the total ban on smoking in bars and restaurants, including a prospective panel study with three data collection occasions (shortly before the ban entered into force as well as 3–4 months and one year later). Results show that the prevalence of daily smokers and the number of cigarettes smoked daily (among continuing smokers) decreased slightly. The rather small decrease in prevalence of smokers and the attrition from the first to the second survey made it difficult to conclude that the ban had any effect on smoking prevalence among employees in bars and restaurants. However, it was quite clear that attitudes among employees towards the ban changed towards being more positive after the ban was introduced. Furthermore, enforcement of a total ban on smoking proved to be much easier than enforcement of a partial ban (with zones for smokers and other zones for non-smokers). Employees also reported an improvement of air quality, and the frequency of respiratory problems and health problems more generally decreased. Both smokers and non-smokers that were positive to the introduction of the ban reported an increase in job satisfaction. Smokers that were negative to the ban reported a decrease in job satisfaction. Among customers, support for the smoking ban increased after the ban was introduced, even among smoking customers. The expected decrease in well-being among smoking customers proved to be marginal. Customers reported better air quality and few problems with enforcement. Self reported patronage (proportion who reported that they had visited restaurants) was the same before and after the ban. The total ban on smoking in bars and restaurants was accompanied by a small and short lived reduction in turnover for bars. The restaurant sector, the larger of the two, was unaffected by the smoking ban. Reported sales from breweries to bars declined. This was not accompanied by an increase in retail sales, which indicates that the consumption of beer did not move from public to private settings. The number of employees in the bar and restaurant industry varies considerably for a number of reasons. We can therefore not conclude that the small and temporary decrease in employees observed after the smoking ban entered into force actually was linked to the smoking ban. There is an overrepresentation of people with short education among the 23 percent daily smokers in Norway. For many of these smokers, stopping smoking may be perceived as really hard. Stopping smoking may have been easier for the average smoker in the 1970s and the 1980s than among today’s population of smokers. The social gradient in smoking observed today has been evident during the last 20 years in countries where the tobacco epidemic is in its advanced stages, like Norway. Throughout this period there has been a search for effective measures for smokers with short education. With the exception of tax increases, researchers have not been able to identify measures which would effectively contribute to reducing the social inequality gap in smoking. Smokers are different from non-smokers in many respects. In addition to generally having shorter education, they are more negative to policies aimed at reducing smoking. One main challenge in the years to come is to do research which will increase our knowledge of what are the most effective policies to reduce smoking among those who continue to smoke. One possibility is to adopt harm reduction strategies, in other words to make it easier for smokers to stop smoking by encouraging them to switch to less harmful nicotine products (for example snus). This is a controversial issue as it involves giving up the ideal of a tobacco free society. Since fewer and fewer start to smoke in secondary school (covering the age groups 13–16), it is increasingly important to monitor and prevent smoking in high school (age groups 16–19).en
dc.language.isonoen
dc.publisherSIRUSen
dc.relation.ispartofseriesSIRUS-rapporten
dc.relation.ispartofseries3/2009en
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.sirus.no/internett/tobakk/publication/485.htmlen
dc.subjectVDP::Samfunnsvitenskap: 200en
dc.subject.meshSmoking Cessationen
dc.subject.meshData Collectionen
dc.subject.meshPrimary Preventionen
dc.subject.meshNicotineen
dc.subject.meshTobacco Use Disorderen
dc.subject.meshSmokingen
dc.subject.meshHealth Policyen
dc.subject.meshLegislationen
dc.subject.meshHarm Reductionen
dc.subject.meshTobacco, Smokelessen
dc.subject.meshPublic Policyen
dc.titleEvaluering av myndighetenes samlede innsats for å forebygge tobakksrelaterte sykdommer i perioden 2003 til 2007no
dc.typeReporten
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