Ingen enkle løsninger. Evaluering av Tiltaksplan for alternativer til rusmiljøene i Oslo sentrum

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Ingen enkle løsninger. Evaluering av Tiltaksplan for alternativer til rusmiljøene i Oslo sentrum
Olsen, Hilgunn; Skretting, Astrid
SIRUS-rapport 2/2006
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dc.contributor.authorOlsen, Hilgunn-
dc.contributor.authorSkretting, Astrid-
dc.identifier.citationSIRUS-rapport 2/2006en
dc.description.abstractNORSK SAMMENDRAG: Den tiltagende elendigheten blant rusmiddelmisbrukere og den åpenlyse bruken og omsetningen av narkotika på "Plata" ved Oslo sentralstasjon var gjenstand for stigende bekymring hos sentrale myndigheter. I januar 2003 ble det framlagt en "Tiltaksplan for alternativer til rusmiljøene i Oslo sentrum". Det overordnede målet med Tiltaksplanen var å: * Løse opp miljøet av rusmiddelmisbrukere i sentrum * Hindre den omfattende stoffomsetningen samme sted * Redusere rekrutteringen til miljøet Planen inneholdt en rekke tiltak/elementer som tok sikte på å yte hjelp til rusmiddelmisbrukere og holde dem vekke fra sentrumsmiljøet. Det ble lagt opp til at politiet skulle bistå rusmiddelmisbrukere i å få nødvendig hjelp fra sosialtjenesten. Videre ble tett samarbeid mellom ulike kommunale etater, mellom Oslo kommune og andre kommuner, mellom Oslo kommune og Oslo politidistrikt, tillagt stor vekt. Evalueringen er en gjennomgang av de ulike tiltakene/elementene og drøfter om og hvilken grad målet med Tiltaksplanen kan sies å være oppnådd.en
dc.description.abstractENGLISH SUMMARY: In light of escalating problems among drug users and the illegal drug dealing on the doorstep of Oslo central station, an area known colloquially as “Plata – the plateau”, there was mounting concern among city and national authorities and the Oslo police. An ad hoc panel was set up to investigate the problem and recommend possible ways forward. Panel members represented Oslo city, Oslo police district and five government ministries. In January 2003, they tendered their report entitled Alternatives to the Drug Scene in the Centre of Oslo – A Plan of Action.22 By creating alternatives to the city centre drug scene (which itself is divided into several clusters), the action plan aimed to • Dissuade drug users from congregating in the city centre • Check the comprehensive drug trade in the same place • Prevent more people joining the group The plan suggested several measures. Taken together they sought to improve help for drug users, and discourage them from congregating in the city centre. The police would be playing a pro-active role here, helping drug users to get the help they needed from the social services. There was an emphasis on collaboration between services in Oslo and other municipalities, and between the city and the Oslo Police District. The government provided funding through what was known as the Poverty Plan, subsidizing low-threshold health services and allocating a lump sum to the Oslo police force. Apart from this, the action plan was funded under the ordinary budget. SIRUS was asked by the then Department of Social Affairs to evaluate the plan. We used quantitative data, obtained mainly from Oslo city authorities, and qualitative data, collected by us through observation and interviewing etc. Findings – individual initiatives The many individual initiatives contained in the action plan were put in motion largely as envisaged. Although the plan’s completion date has come and gone, many of the initiatives continue in the shape of projects or as part of normal operations. • 24 hour institutions offer meals, though to varying degrees. Naturally enough, residents have welcomed the improvement, though the proportion taking advantage of it has varied. Similarly, 24 hour institutions initiated a number of activities for residents. Here, however, participation by residents has been more muted. • Several “day shelters” (“væresteder”) have been set up, the largest being Café Trappa at Ila Hybelhus (a residential shelter), where 200 meals are served every day. Other day shelters set up as part of the action plan are Møtestedet F7, Villa Mar Sagene, Villa Mar Øst and Villa Mar Vest. • The decentralized needle exchange service is better structured and managed than it was. • Low threshold health services have been extended. • It is easier to send drug users not officially domiciled in Oslo back to their own communities. • Drug users have helped in actions to clean up the city streets and parks, collecting used syringes. Few such exercises have taken place, however. • Oslo city has succeeded in “cleaning up” part of the private accommodation market targeted at drug users where landlords frequently charge exorbitant rates. The duties on landlords set out in quality agreements between the city and landlords are easily circumvented by landlords redefining 24 hour accommodation to long-term tenancy agreements. • Particular priority has been given to stepping up referral procedures for drug users admitted to emergency places at Ila Hybelhus, Dalsbergstien Hus and Marcus Thranes Hus. • A separate project was organized to follow up drug users living in training and/or council flats. • A separate project was started to prepare a plan for 25 selected drug users. There is no denying the strong commitment of Oslo city through its Alcohol and Drug Addiction Service to organize the measures set out by the action plan. These measures have worked well in most cases for the people they were meant to help. It would be going too far, however, to suggest that the plan succeeded in significantly lowering the number of drug users congregating in various places in the centre of the city. The action plan should therefore be considered more of an “extra”, a supplement rather than an alternative to the places that attract drug users to the town centre. The “Plata” action In spring 2004, the steering committee saw the situation at “Plata” going from bad to worse. The police were no longer in control of the situation. The police, decided the steering committee, should therefore stop turning a blind eye to drug use and drug dealing in the vicinity of Oslo’s central train station. Steps were taken to strengthen police presence and coordinate this with higher preparedness on the part of municipal health and social services. The date agreed by the different parties to launch these measures – April 2004 – had to be postponed for various reasons to June 7 2004. The delay meant that the plans agreed on by the police and Oslo city, however, on coordination procedures, were not practised entirely as envisaged. Drug users disappeared from the “Plata” area, but quickly regrouped in Skippergata, a nearby street. The group here counted fewer members, however, and drugs are not injected in full view of the public. This redistribution of the drug scene in Oslo city centre is more the result of what is called the “Plata campaign” than the action plan. The "Plata action" came into being because the action plan had failed to clear drug users away from the station forecourt. It was this stronger police presence that was publicly referred to as the “Plata action”. According to some, drug users were being ejected from the station precincts without cause, and it was questioned whether the action was actually legal. There was a certain amount of apprehension at the prospect of higher overdose frequencies as a result of the move. Such fears have proved unfounded, however. Doubts were also raised about claims put out by the police that a large number of drug users at "Plata" were under eighteen. Cooperation Cooperation and coordination were central elements of the action plan. Senior levels at Oslo city and Oslo Police District worked well together from the start. Brought together by regular meetings to implement the action plan made cooperation even better. Both the city and police authorities agree on this assessment. But the situation on the ground is not as clear cut, although operations have gone relatively smoothly there as well. Some had expected the police to do more to help drug users into treatment and other types of assistance than actually transpired. Collaboration between the city and the police on the one hand and various voluntary organizations on the other also proved a positive experience in the main. Oslo City Mission and the Salvation Army were slightly unhappy, however, with not being drawn into discussions on the design and implementation of the action plan. Oslo’s Alcohol and Drug Addiction Service also seem to have had limited success mobilizing city district authorities to tackle the drug scene in the city centre. In their defence, however, the action plan neither gave priority to this type of collaboration nor suggested how it was supposed to be organized. Achievements The primary objective was to disband the drug scene in the centre of the city. This was not accomplished. Oslo city has nevertheless put a great deal of effort into extending existing services and setting up new options for the group of drug users in question. It is a pertinent question whether the action plan was completely realistic in the first place. Given the aim to dissolve the drug scene in the city centre, setting up a café, needle exchange, outreach health amenity and supervised drug injection facility in Tollbugate 3 – not far from the central station – seems slightly paradoxical. While Oslo city deserves praise for its efforts to improve low threshold services for drug users, drug users still face inadequate social and health services. More needs to be done to upgrade individually targeted help by preparing individual plans. This is a challenge for the future, and should be pursued in league with the city district authorities and Alcohol and Drug Addiction Service. The nature of the incentives and amount of resources to be spent on the group of drug users in question belong to the realm of political decision making. How the many problems will be tackled depends largely on drug policy ceilings for the health and social services, and indeed the police.-
dc.subjectVDP::Samfunnsvitenskap: 200en
dc.subject.meshSubstance-Related Disordersen
dc.subject.meshDrug and Narcotic Controlen
dc.subject.meshPrimary Preventionen
dc.subject.meshPreventive Health Servicesen
dc.subject.meshEvaluation Studiesen
dc.titleIngen enkle løsninger. Evaluering av Tiltaksplan for alternativer til rusmiljøene i Oslo sentrumno
dc.typepeer revieweden
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