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Overskjenking i Bergen. En oppfølgingsevaluering av Ansvarlig vertskap i Bergen
Lauritzen, Hege Cecilie; Baklien, Bergljot
SIRUS-rapport 5/2007
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dc.contributor.authorLauritzen, Hege Cecilie-
dc.contributor.authorBaklien, Bergljot-
dc.identifier.citationSIRUS-rapport 5/2007en
dc.description.abstractNORSK SAMMENDRAG: Rapporten er en studie av omfanget av overskjenking på utesteder i Bergen sentrum. Den søker å svare på når og hvor overskjenking foregår, og gir noen mulige forklaringer på funnene. Undersøkelsen er gjort på oppdrag av Sosial- og helsedirektoratet, og fokuserer også på effekter av Ansvarlig Vertskap i Bergen. Rapporten bygger på testkjøp på 55 skjenkesteder i Bergen sentrum i november 2006. Ved bruk av skuespillere som spilte svært beruset ble det testet om fulle gjester får servering og hva som skjer når gjestene bestiller. Antall overskjenkinger i Bergen har økt fra 63 prosent i 2003 til 84 prosent i 2006. I denne perioden har opplæring i Ansvarlig Vertskap blitt obligatorisk for alle ansatte på steder som har åpent til kl tre på natta i Bergen. I rapporten presenteres mulige forklaringer på overskjenkingen. Resultatene viser at det er lettere for svært berusede å få servering når det er høy musikk, mange gjester i lokalet og beruselsesnivået generelt er høyt. Mannlige skuespillere ble nektet servering noe oftere enn kvinner, og kvinnelige bartendere nektet å servere noe oftere enn mannlige. Den kulturelle konteksten blir framhevet som en viktig faktor. Den uformelle aksepten av beruselse er sterk i Norge, ikke minst blant de unge gjestene og ansatte på utestedene. Denne allmenne aksepten kan være mer avgjørende for om fulle gjester får servering enn lovens bestemmelser. Forskerne konkluderer med at det fortsatt er behov for mer og bedre opplæring om overskjenking og dens konsekvenser for ansatte i skjenkenæringen. Men kursingen må følges av mer og bedre kontroller, og alkoholloven må faktisk håndheves.en
dc.description.abstractENGLISH SUMMARY: Under the provisions of the Alcohol Act, it is forbidden to serve alcoholic beverages to customers of bars and restaurants that are ”obviously under the influence of alcohol or drugs” (”åpenbart påvirket av rusmidler”). Despite this, overserving is known to be a highly prevalent occurrence. But we also know that other countries, not least Sweden, have had marked success in their efforts to reduce overserving by running staff training programmes. This report sets out the results of the first Norwegian study of overserving in bars and restaurants after most of the staff had completed a responsible alcohol serving programme. In addition to exploring the prevalence of overserving, we seek to explain why over¬serving takes place. Since 2000, more than 1,200 serving staff in the hospitality trade in Bergen have attended a Responsible host programme. In 2003 the programme became compulsory for workers in bars and restaurants with extended opening hours. In the same period, from 2000 to the end of 2006, more than 7,000 on-site inspections were carried out to monitor overserving. Only eight violations were reported, however, indicating either broad compliance with the Alcohol Act in Bergen, or a failure of the inspectors to report infringements. Over one weekend in November 2006, test purchases were made at 55 bars and restaurants in the centre of Bergen. By using actors to play inebriated customers, we were able to see whether they were served and to record aspects of the interaction and setting. The study also involved participant observation, qualitative interviews and document analysis. Our findings indicate that overserving is very widespread indeed, despite the fact that most of the staff involved in these situations had gone through the responsible serving programme. In 84 per cent of all test situations, the ”inebriated” customer received what s/he’d ordered, a rise of 21 per centage point since the previous evaluation, done in 2003. Although all serving staff at on-licensed premises with opening hours extending after midnight had attended the responsible serving programme, we did not observe a single case of our ”drunk customer” not being served in the last hour before closing, between 2 and 3 am. Since customers have probably consumed alcohol the whole evening, this is when most customers are likely to be drunk. Staff at a third of the 46 bars/restaurants did express misgivings about the customer’s state, but went on to serve him/her all the same. What the staff did in effect was to refrain from taking responsibility and “pass the buck” on to the customer saying something like ”you can have a beer, but nothing stronger!”, to the customer’s sober companion, ”You’ll just have to look after him!”, or to the bouncer, ”Since the bouncer let you in, then...!”. To understand the underlying causes of overserving we looked at the physical context, the people involved and Norwegian drinking culture. And what we found was that our “drunk” actor would be more likely to be served if the place was crowded, the music was loud, and other customers had already drunk to excess. We also discovered that our male actors were more likely to be turned down than the female actors. Regarding the bar staff, female servers were more likely to refuse to serve “drunk” customers than male servers, and older than younger servers. In most cases, the explanation for overserving is complex and a mix of several factors. One of the most influential factors however, is probably the drinking culture. Pubs and restaurants satisfy several social needs, and represent a setting where, for many customers, getting drunk plays an important role. Indeed, drinking to excess – within certain limits – is both expected and accepted behaviour, especially among younger age-groups. This is the age-group that consumes most alcohol and has the highest incidence of drunkenness. Daily life in the hospitality trade is often hectic. Customers want to enjoy themselves and drink in quantity. And it seems that behavioural norms that apply elsewhere in society are replaced by others, resulting in a collective acceptance of drunkenness. Refusing to serve a customer may therefore be felt as transgressing informal social norms. Whether a drunken customer is served or not, clearly other mechanisms are at play than the Alcohol Act. Our study shows a need for improved training programmes, heightened awareness about overserving and its consequences. The Responsible host programme trains the staff in conflict avoidance methods and prevention of drink-related violence. Information on overserving is however only a small part of the short programme, which in its present configuration at least is clearly not having much of an effect on the prevalence of overserving. It is also a well known fact the increased knowledge does not necessarily result in modified behaviour. Training also needs following up with practical steps to enforce the law; inspections should be held more frequently and control measures improved. If businesses break the law, sanctions should be used. Given its mission to “to curb to the greatest possible extent the harm to society and the individual that may result from the consumption of alcoholic beverages”, the Alcohol Act has, together with local licensing byelaws, a large, but possibly unused potential as a preventive mechanism.-
dc.subjectVDP::Samfunnsvitenskap: 200en
dc.subject.meshAlcohol Drinkingen
dc.subject.meshPublic Policyen
dc.subject.meshEvaluation Studiesen
dc.titleOverskjenking i Bergen. En oppfølgingsevaluering av Ansvarlig vertskap i Bergenno
dc.typepeer revieweden
dc.contributor.departmentNorwegian Insitute for Alcohol and Drug Researchen
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