"Vi blir en sånn utstøtt gruppe til slutt ...". Røykeres syn på egen røyking og denormaliseringsstrategier i tobakkspolitikken

2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10143/263212
Title:
"Vi blir en sånn utstøtt gruppe til slutt ...". Røykeres syn på egen røyking og denormaliseringsstrategier i tobakkspolitikken
Authors:
Sæbø, Gunnar (red.)
Citation:
SIRUS-rapport 3/2012

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorSæbø, Gunnar (red.)en_GB
dc.date.accessioned2012-12-19T09:35:00Z-
dc.date.available2012-12-19T09:35:00Z-
dc.date.issued2012-11-
dc.identifier.citationSIRUS-rapport 3/2012en_GB
dc.identifier.isbn978-82-7171-383-6-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10143/263212-
dc.description.abstractNORSK SAMMENDRAG: Innledningsvis i antologien "Vi blir en sånn utstøtt gruppe til slutt..." gjøres det rede for hva vi forstår med denormalisering av røyking og røykere (definering av røyking som uønsket atferd), og hvordan ideen om denormalisering har preget mye av tobakkskontrollarbeidet i Norge og i vesten forøvrig. Rapporten presenterer så fem empiriske analyser basert på røykernes selvforståelse: Karl Erik Lund viser i sin artikkel «Røykernes motstand til nye tobakksforebyggende tiltak» at en stor andel av dagens røykere er sterkt imot flere røykebegrensninger, særlig salgsbegrensninger for sigaretter. Motstanden er noe mindre når det gjelder nye adgangsbegrensninger. Rikke Iren Tokles studie «Av-og-til-røyking – en dobbeltdistinksjon? Avstand fra både dagligrøyking og ‘streite’ ikke-røykere» får fram hvordan røyken inngår i det sosiale livet til urbane unge voksne, og hvordan av-og-til-røyking kan sees som uttrykk for motstand mot både avhengighetsperspektivet som assosieres med dagligrøykere og ikke-røykernes helsefokus. I Ola Røed Bilgreis artikkel «Forsvar og motstand: Etablerte røykeres nøytraliserings- og motstandsteknikker i et tobakksfiendtlig samfunn», er det forsvaret for egen atferd og den eksplisitte motstanden mot reguleringer og myndigheter som er i fokus. Forsvaret består av nøytraliseringsteknikker for å nedtone helseplager og risiko, slik at røykingen framstår som mer legitim og rasjonell for den enkelte, mens motstanden innebærer problematisering av restriksjoner som virkemiddel og av hva som egentlig er «god helse». Informantene i Janne Scheffels og Gunnar Sæbøs kapittel «´De andres blikk´: røykeres opplevelse av denormalisering av tobakksbruk», beskriver opplevelsen av å bli sett som røykere gjennom omgivelsenes blikk, både barns og kollegers, men også storsamfunnet og statens «blikk». Mange forteller at de i stor grad kjenner på følelsen av å være devaluert, uten at de nødvendigvis kan referere til konkrete tilfeller av direkte og eksplisitt stigmatisering. I den siste artikkelen analyserer Gunnar Sæbø tobakksbrukernes (inkludert tidligere brukere) syn på seg selv og hverandre, i lys av et sosialt identitetsperspektiv. Analysen viser at norske tobakksbrukere ikke skiller skarpt mellom typiske brukere av ulike tobakksprodukter, idet de underliggende typifiseringene «positiv», «kulturelt marginal» og «lite attraktiv» like gjerne knyttes til både pipe-, sigar-, sigarett- og snusbrukere. Avslutningsvis diskuteres bruk av stigmatisering som et virkemiddel i folkehelsepolitikk. Det tas også til orde for en nøyere kartlegging av utbredelsen av opplevd stigmatisering blant røykere samt studier av sammenhenger mellom opplevd stigmatisering og røykesluttplaner..en_GB
dc.description.abstractENGLISH SUMMARY: The anthology sheds light on the experience of smokers with a policy of tobacco denormalization on the basis of their situation, social position and perspective. The chapters explore various aspects of the use of a hazardous product that is increasingly being defined as vulgar and ‘naff' and hemmed in by ever tighter regulations. Some of the issues that are addressed include the extent of support and backing for the measures among current smokers, and the effect of these measures and of the hostile climate on users' self-understanding and social relations. The report starts by explaining what we understand by the denormalization of smoking and smokers, and how the idea shaped and informed efforts to control tobacco use in Norway and the West. As a policy it has been successful in the sense of reducing by a significant amount the size of the smoking population in recent decades. At the same time, however, signals emerging from several countries suggest that the policy has unintended consequences for the remaining smokers, especially a subjective experience of devalued social standing and stigmatization. Given these findings and the apparently dysfunctional effect of restrictive policies, there is obviously a need for more studies of smokers' self-understanding than has been possible up to now. This report presents five empirical analyses, all based on the user's vantage point. To ensure that policies adopted by a society succeed, i.e., that they perform in line with expectations, it is important to determine whether there is support for the measures, not only among the general public, but among the people targeted by the policy. Karl Erik Lund, in his article on «Smokers' resistance to new tobacco control measures», notes the determined resistance of a very high proportion of current smokers to smoking restrictions, particularly restrictions on the sale of cigarettes. There is slightly less opposition to new restrictions on access. The scale of the opposition to the proposed measures is unprecedented, and may indicate significant difficulties ahead in terms of legitimizing and enforcing compliance with the measures, especially if the most controversial ones are put into effect. The three subsequent articles discuss various strategies open to smokers in response to the denormalization policy. The first can be described as a conscious decision not to let oneself be defined as a smoker. «I'm not really a smoker» is a popular self-perception among many of the better educated partygoers and occasional smokers. In «Intermittent smoking - A double distinction? Keeping your distance from daily smokers and straight non-smokers», Rikke Iren Tokle demonstrates with great clarity how far the cigarette is woven into the social life of creative young urbanites, and how occasional smoking can express a form of resistance to the notion of dependency associated with daily smoking and the concern for health displayed by non-smokers. In light of the wider idea of denormalization, redefining smoking behaviour is seen as a way of evading binary definitions like smoker/non-smoker. Ola Røed Bilgrei's article, «Defence and resistance: Established smokers' neutralization- and resistance techniques in a tobacco hostile society», on the other hand, looks at how smokers' defend their behaviour authorities. Their approach is to deploy neutralization techniques which downplay the harmful effects of smoking and risks to health; smoking becomes a legitimate activity which makes sense. Resistance involves questioning restrictions as means of control, and what «good health» actually infers. Both the defence and resistance mechanisms can be understood as narrative strategies aimed at neutralizing and warding off the sense of stigma associated with smoking. Janne Scheffels and Gunnar Sæbø let their smoking informants tell their side of the story in their article, «‘The gaze of the other': Smokers' experience of denormalizing tobacco use». Here, smokers look at their behaviour as if through the eyes of the community, children and colleagues but also wider society and the state (through the informant's reception of new restrictive measures). These persistent daily smokers know what it feels like to be stigmatized, without necessarily referencing specific episodes of overt, undisguised stigmatization. Smoking is regarded rather as an element of their social identity, and this «internalized» stigma identity characterizes their sense of self in everyday situations. The attitude of these smokers to their behaviour is characterized by an even greater degree of resignation and fatalism than Tokle and Bilgrei found in their informants. In the last article Gunnar Sæbø analyzes current and former tobacco users' opinions of themselves and each other, in light of a social identity perspective. The analysis shows that Norwegian tobacco users do not really distinguish between typical users of different tobacco products, and apply basic categories like «positive», «culturally marginal» and «unattractive» to pipe, cigar and cigarette smokers, and users of smokeless tobacco, without distinction. Use of the various products does not give rise to separate identities. However, consumers of a particular tobacco product are more likely to view the typical tobacco user in their own group in a more «positive» and less «culturally marginal» and «unattractive» light, than former users, indicating a greater tendency among ex-smokers to affix negative (and potentially more stigmatizing) stereotypes. Finally, Sæbø discusses the use of stigmatization as a means of implementing public health policy, and calls for more studies of the extent of perceived stigma and of the impact of stigmatization at the level of the individual and population.en_GB
dc.language.isonoen
dc.publisherSIRUSen_GB
dc.relation.ispartofseriesSIRUS-rapporten_GB
dc.relation.ispartofseries3/2012en_GB
dc.subject.meshTobaccoen_GB
dc.subject.meshNorwayen_GB
dc.subject.meshPublic Policyen_GB
dc.subject.meshEvaluation Studiesen_GB
dc.title"Vi blir en sånn utstøtt gruppe til slutt ...". Røykeres syn på egen røyking og denormaliseringsstrategier i tobakkspolitikkenno
dc.typeReporten
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